The Southern Ocean is the stormiest place on Earth, churned by winds and waves that circle the ice of Antarctica. This remote and usually pristine environment is typically removed from human-caused and naturally produced continental airborne particles. For this reason, the region is a unique laboratory for studying the interactions between clouds and particles naturally produced by the ocean, such as sea salt and biogenic particles. We were part of a team of atmospheric scientists based in Hobart, Tasmania for six weeks to collect cloud, aerosol and precipitation data over the Southern Ocean during a research project called the Southern Ocean Clouds, Radiation, Aerosol Transport Experimental Study (SOCRATES).
Wang, Y, G. M. McFarquhar, R. M. Rauber, C. Zhao, W. Wu, J. A. Finlon, D. M. Stechman, J. Stith, J. Jensen, M. Schnaiter, E. Järvinen, F. Waitz, J. Vivekanandan, and M, Dixon, B. Rainwater and D. W. Toohey 2020: Microphysical Properties of Generating Cells over the Southern Ocean: Results from SOCRATES. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmospheres., https://doi.org/10.1029/2019JD032237
Rauber, R. M., Hu, H., Dominguez, F., Nesbitt, S. W., McFarquhar, G. M., Zaremba, T. J., & Finlon, J. A. (2020). Structure of an Atmospheric River Over Australia and the Southern Ocean. Part I: Tropical and Midlatitude Water Vapor Fluxes. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 125(18). https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JD032513
Finlon, J. A., Rauber, R. M., Wu, W., Zaremba, T. J., McFarquhar, G. M., Nesbitt, S. W., Schnaiter, M., Järvinen, E., Waitz, F., Hill, T. C. J., & DeMott, P. J. (2020). Structure of an Atmospheric River Over Australia and the Southern Ocean: II. Microphysical Evolution. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 125(18). https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JD032514
McFarquhar, G.M., C. Bretherton, R. Marchand, A. Protat, P. DeMott, S. Alexander, S. Rintoul, G. Roberts, C. Twohy, D. Toohey, S. Siems, Y. Huang, R. Wood, R. Rauber, S. Lasher-Trapp, J. Jensen, J. Stith, J. Mace, J. Um, E. Jaervinen, M. Schnaiter, A. Gettelman, K. Sanchez, C. McCluskey, I. MccOy, K. Moore, T. Hill, and B. Rainwater (2020), Unique observations of clouds, aerosols and precipitation over the Southern Ocean: An overview of CAPRICORN, MARCUS, MICRE and SOCRATES. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., in press.
Zaremba, T, R. M. Rauber, G. M. McFarquhar, Matthew Hayman, J. A. Finlon, and D. M. Stechman, 2020: Phase Characterization of Cold Sector Southern Ocean Cloud Tops: results from SOCRATES. J. Geophys. Res., https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JD033673.
D’Alessandro, J. G. M. McFarquhar, W. Wu, J. Stith, J. Jensen, and R.M. Rauber, 2021: Characterizing the occurrence and spatial heterogeneity of liquid, ice and mixed phase low-level clouds over the Southern Ocean using in situ observations acquired during SOCRATES. J. Geophys. Res. Atms., in press.
Zaremba, T, R. M. Rauber, G. M. McFarquhar, P.J. Demott, J. A. Finlon, and D. M. Stechman, 2021: Role of the Ice Phase in Southern Ocean Clouds with Cloud Top Temperatures Exceeding -5°C. J. Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, In press.